Wednesday, September 29, 2010

Immediate First Aid for Injured Animals

This is ONLY useful in case the wounds and problem is not very Severe... In severe cases PLEASE TAKE THE ANIMAL TO THE NEAREST QUALIFIED VET AND DO IT IMMEDIATELY, TRY NOT TO WASTE TIME it will cost their life!!!!
     Skin Diseases in Dogs:


Mange is a catch-all term for various skin conditions that include scabies or sarcoptic mange in dogs (known as notoedric mange in cats), demodectic or "red" mange, cheyletiella mange, and ear mite infections. They are each caused by a different mite.
There are two types of common mange that you should keep an eye out for. The first is Sarcoptic mange, and usually starts with the head and ears. It will then spread to the tail and work its way under the front legs. The skin will look like it has small burns or red spots all over the affected area and can be treated with medication and shampoos.
The second type of mange is Demodectic mange and is the result of mites most commonly found on puppies. These mites will attack the hair follicles and you will notice a rash and loss of hair. If this type of mange is not treated right away, the mites will cause it to grow faster as they continue to reproduce. If they are left untreated, these mites can infect the whole of your dog’s body and cause it much unneeded and unwanted pain. On top of this, the constant scratching will cause an unpleasant musty odor and infection can set in.
Mange is a serious skin disease caused by mites. Such parasites will attack in big numbers and cause severe damages to the ears, face, and limbs of dogs. There are many signs indicating that a dog is suffering from mange.
Here are the most common ones:
    * Excessive itching: Dogs itch and scratch a lot. For most pets, that's normal. However, if they scratch too hard and too often, causing red sores on their skins, then the problem is not a simple skin disease. Mange may be causing this behavior.
    * Hair loss: When mites attack, the body parts where they burrow themselves into get affected. Hair loss is the most common sign. If in some parts the hair of your dog seems a little thin, the skin shows red blisters and sores, chances are your pet is suffering from mange. It is best that you take it to the vet right away before the problem gets any worse.
    * Dry, crusty and thickened skin: The moment the skin of your dog becomes exposed due to hair loss, check it thoroughly. Hair loss can be caused by a lot of diseases and mange is just one of them. Your dog has mange if their skin is extremely dry and wrinkled. These are the signs that parasites have invaded the skin of your dog and are continuing to damage it.
    * Strong, foul odor: As mites invade the skin area, they will reproduce massively. In this case, a dog will experience severe itching. Your dog will scratch its skin all day. As your dog scratches different body parts, the mites will start to spread. When mites increase in number, the odor of your dog changes. Dogs with mange develop odor similar to that of a strong cheese or like athlete's foot.
    * Sores and blisters: As with most skin disorders, the presence of sores, reddening, and blisters on the skin are expected. You know the problem is worse when there's blood, open wounds, or severe inflammation on the affected areas. At such point, it is best that you take your dog to the veterinarian for first aid and for continual medication.
In both the types of Mange it is essential to take the dog to the vet because the vet would thoroughly examine the dog and prescribe necessary medicines depending upon the severity of the skin disease.
Usually along with skin disease, bacterial and fungal infections also take place so it is necessary for the dog to undergo a full anti-biotic course as prescribed by the vet.
  AAllergic skin reactions:

Insect bite and plants:
a.       On the underside of belly: redness, swelling of eyes, swelling of the snout and sometimes vomiting.
Consult a vet, who would examine the dog and prescribe a course of medicines. 
Till the dog is transported to the vet, a tablet of Avil can be given, which we usually have in our first aid boxes.  Intra venous Fluid therapy in necessary to dilute and excrete the toxin.
a.       Visible parasites on skin surface.
b.      Fleas may not be visible by naked eye but can be detected through the excreta on the roots of the dog’s hair causing itching.
c.       Ticks are mustard size insects with legs. These are blood suckers and can suck up to 0.1 ml of blood causing problems like anemia in puppies as well as adult dogs.
d.      Lice are similar to human lice and are generally very fast moving.

Treatment for Ticks/Fleas/Lice:
a.       RIDD- A liquid suspension added to bath water.
b.      Bayticol-pour-on solution or spray
c.       Frontline- Expensive but effective up to 3 months.
d.      Neomec Tablets for treating both Internal and External Parasites.
Manufacturer’s instructions must be strictly followed as these contain toxic compounds if ingested and are harmful to dogs.
      Wounds and Cuts on dogs
a.       It is necessary to cut the hair around the wound.
b.      Clean the wound with any diluted disinfectant like Dettol or Betadine.
c.       Application of ointment like Betadine for larger wounds and Neosporin ointment for small wounds. Note: If the wounds are very large then please take the dog to the vet immediately as suturing may be required.
d.      Dusting Powder: Nebasulf Powder can be used.
e.       After applying the powder and ointment, one could use cotton and gauze to prevent the infection.

5.      Dog Bite Wounds:
a.       Wounds must be thoroughly washed with soap and water, if it is a dog bite wound.
b.      Use Iodine or any alcohol based liquid for cleaning the wound.
c.       Powders such as Nebasulf Powder and Neosporin ointment can be used on the wound.
d.      NEVER bandage dog bite wounds.

6.      Maggot Wounds
Maggots are worm-like larvae which eat up the flesh of the dog. It is very dangerous and needs immediate treatment. If left untreated the maggot multiply and slowly eat away the flesh of the animal’s body.
a.       Use of Eucalyptus oil, neem oil, powdered camphor.
b.      Give the dog Neomec tablets.
c.       Remove the Maggots manually and don’t let the dead maggots remain on the body surface.
d.      In case the number of maggots is more then take the dog to the vet for further treatment.
e.       After the maggots are removed routine treatment to given as in the case of wounds and cuts in dogs.

7.      Fractures:
There are two types of Fractures:
a.       Closed Fractures
b.      Open Fractures

a.      Closed Fractures:
Symptoms to identify a closed fracture:
a.      No external damage to the skin.
b.      Swelling/Reddish/Bluish coloration of skin.
c.       On feeling the skin, broken bones can be felt and usually dogs would not allow the person to touch the area.
d.      Dog would usually limp if there is a fracture in the leg or would not get up in case of hip bone fracture.

b.      Open Fractures:
Symptoms to identify an open fracture:
a.      Visible wound/ bone emerging from the wound on the dog.
b.      Severe bleeding and pain.
c.       As in the case of closed fracture, due to pain the dog would not walk properly or not place the leg on the ground.
Treatment for Open and Closed fractures:
a.       Take a huge ice-pack and place it on the area till transported to the vet.
b.      In case of open fracture, immediate care is essential.
c.       Tie a rope or tourniquet to prevent any further bleeding in front of the wound to reduce blood supply to the area. A clean bandage cloth to be wrapped around the wound. A stick or a wooden plank to be tied along to give support to the fractured portion.

Food poisoning in dogs
a.       Insecticides
b.      Rat Poison
c.       Rotten food materials


Vomiting, Diarrhea, excess saliva drooling, staggering/weakness, tremors, etc.
If you are aware of the source of poisoning and the duration since the poisoning took place, then hydrogen peroxide/ saturated salt water must be given to the dog to induce vomiting, if the poison is just consumed-within 30 mins or less.  If more than 30 mins have passed after consumption of poison, then give the dog egg white or mashed potatoes till transported to the vet.
     Gastro in dogs:
a.       Vomiting more than 3 times
b.      Diarrhea
c.       Weakness
d.      Dehydration
a.       Electral/Glucose or ORS can be given to the dog
b.      For excessive vomiting- ice cubes or cold water can be given
c.       To treat Diarrhea- dog can be given Lomofen tablets till taken to the vet.
It is essential that the dog is taken to the vet as soon as possible because gastro leads to excessive loss of body fluids which is harmful and fatal.

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